These differences became evident in the 1936 elections. Due to Spain's backwardness and the fact that the nation was poor, many people sought to go to extremist parties in search of a solution. The fact that it had utterly failed made no impression on the ardent radical revolutionaries. The Siege of the Alcázar at Toledo early in the war was a turning point, with the rebels winning after a long siege. Don't have an account yet? Calvo Sotelo was one of the most prominent Spanish monarchists who, describing the government's actions as Bolshevist and anarchist, had been exhorting the army to intervene, declaring that Spanish soldiers would save the country from communism if "there are no politicians capable of doing so". The suspension of the land reforms that had been attempted by the previous government, and the failure of the Asturias miners' uprising, led to a more radical turn by the parties of the left, especially in the PSOE (Socialist Party), where the moderate Indalecio Prieto lost ground to Francisco Largo Caballero, who advocated a socialist revolution. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. Second Republic, (1848–52) French republic established after the Revolution of 1848 toppled the July monarchy of King Louis-Philippe. The leaders of the treason (Franco was not commander-in-chief yet) did not lose heart with the stalemate and apparent failure of the coup. The initial government would be an all-military "Directory", which would create a "strong and disciplined state." It also set out to tackle its military aim of reforming he army to improve its efficiency; this was done by asking 50% of the officers to retire. However, a number of captured priests, businessmen and civil guards were summarily executed by the revolutionaries in Mieres and Sama. Despite the Republic's eventual failure, it did achieve some successes. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. The Second Republic did try its best at times in measures such as the labour arbitration scheme and the Catalan Statute. [7] The rebellion was crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish colonial troops from Spanish Morocco. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed; the number of casualties is actually disputed as some have suggested as many as a million people died. © 2003 - 2015 Marked by Teachers. Moreover the Second Republic gave the retired officers full-pay, so by the end it had little money left for social reforms. [36] In line with Payne's point of view, in 2017 two Spanish Scholars, Manuel Álvarez Tardío and Roberto Villa García published the result of a research where they concluded that the 1936 elections were rigged. If anything, they became even more extremist over time and were quick to take advantage of any opportunity to seize power. The reason for this great failure takes its root in many different aspects of the Spanish history. The argument that Mr Gil Robles tried to destroy the Constitution to establish fascism was, at once, hypocritical and false. Spain’s First Democracy The Second Republic, 1931–1936 Stanley G. Payne “[Stanley Payne is] America’s most prolific historian of Spain.” —Paul Preston, New York Times Book Review The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. For each one, note down the most convincing argument for and against it, and try to form an overall judgement. Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. After 1917, the Restoration regime entered a state of crisis, which finally resulted in the coup d'état of Miguel Primo de Rivera, Captain-General of Catalonia. [57] The major goal was to put an end to anarchical disorder. [52] However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. Almost immediately after the results were known, a group of monarchists asked Robles to lead a coup but he refused. Spain History - 2nd Republic - (1931 - 1939) For the next five years the power swayed between the political views of the right and left and more often as not blood was shed. The UGT, along with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), were the main forces behind the aforementioned social revolution. General Sanjurjo would be the head of this new regime, due to being widely liked and respected within the military, though his position would be a largely symbolic due to his lack of political talent. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. 1939, in der eine neue demokratische Staatsform (Republik) existierte und die von scharfen politischen sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes gekennzeichnet war. Landowners were expropriated. Any deviation, even if democratic, was seen as treasonous.[5]. Primary Sources Second Republic. Calleja, Eduardo González, and Francisco Sánchez Pérez. It also effectively disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, but the disestablishment was somewhat reversed by the Cortes that same year. It was used as a testing ground for the German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion. The Second Spanish Federal Republic, also known as Spanish Federal Republic, or Spain is a federation of states based on the Iberian peninsula who follows a parlamentary republican state lead currently by Pulpo_Pol. Home rule was granted to Catalonia, with a local parliament and a president of its own. [30][31] The miners proceeded to occupy several other towns, most notably the large industrial centre of La Felguera, and set up town assemblies, or "revolutionary committees", to govern the towns that they controlled. Alcalá Zamora’s professed goal was to “center the Republic,” stabilizing the new regime while avoiding extremes, but he failed altogether in this project. Azana came back to power, he was liberal and wanted to restore the modern policies and release political prisoners, this angered the right. Seidman, Michael. • The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. The Right Republic was voted in precisely because of the Left's previous failures. The second government was led by socialist Francisco Largo Caballero of the trade union General Union of Workers (UGT). In response a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members of parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July on a revenge mission. According to all later investigations, the perpetrator of the murder was a socialist gunman, Luis Cuenca, who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. They claimed that the authorities did not properly investigate it and promoted those involved in the murder whilst censoring those who cried out about it and shutting down the headquarters of right-wing parties and arresting right-wing party members, often on "flimsy charges". The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Violence would be required to destroy opposition to the coup, though it seems Mola did not envision the mass atrocities and repression that would ultimately manifest during the civil war. The Second Spanish Republic 1931-39: Historical Overview. The Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Spanish: Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. Yale University Press, 2008, pp.84–85. During this time, the government of Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to modernize the country. of a sufficient economy to sustain the war of attrition or provide efficient equipment for the army; he once again was despised by the population and blamed for the numerous defeats the army endured and a growing hatred grew larger and larger against him and a cry for change. But altogether it was these divisions, combined with the Second Republic's extreme policies and inappropriate approach to situations, that led to this government's inevitable downfall. Three days later (17 July), the coup d'état began more or less as it had been planned, with an army uprising in Spanish Morocco, which then spread to several regions of the country. In 1932 the Jesuits who were in charge of the best schools throughout the country were banned and had all their property confiscated. Name: Eva Teng The Second Spanish Republic was established in 1931, and it was the first attempt to establish democracy in Spain after the previous failure in the 19th century. Already have an account? However, fearing the increasingly popular opposition, the Radical and Socialist majority postponed the regular elections, prolonging their power for two more years. Beevor, Antony. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Join over 1.2 million students every month, Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Spain's conflicting history had already been built up by that time too - for example Catalan's demand for autonomy. The Republican government survived in exile, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. [9] Manuel Azaña Díaz was called upon to form a government before the electoral process had come to an end; he would shortly replace Zamora as president, taking advantage of a constitutional loophole. Although both sides received foreign military aid, the help that Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany (as part of German involvement in the Spanish Civil War), and neighbouring Portugal gave the rebels was much greater and more effective than the assistance that the Republicans received from the USSR, Mexico, and volunteers of the International Brigades. The constitution provided generally accorded civil liberties and representation.[25]. The killing of Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government's opponents on the right. Their chance came in 1931 when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. The first was led by left-wing republican José Giral (from July to September 1936); however, a revolution inspired mostly on libertarian socialist, anarchist and communist principles broke within the Republic, which weakened the rule of the Republic. The north, including the Basque country, fell in late 1937, and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterward. If anything, the uprising and its results further divided the government and the people of Spain. Convinced that the left was no longer willing to follow the rule of law and that its vision of Spain was under threat, the right abandoned the parliamentary option and began to conspire as to how to best overthrow the republic, rather than taking control of it.[43][44]. After the Revolution of October of 1934 • the democratic project that the great were... Both the Right Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history, its dates and important events. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party 's Alejandro Lerroux to do Assignment: essay - Why the. 12, 1931 to 1939 neue demokratische Staatsform ( Republik ) existierte und die von scharfen politischen ökonomischen. Land, banks, and thus he continued wages for the nationalisation of public services and land,,... Of Asturias '' 16 ] the 12 April 1931, proved that the agrarian! It lasted just ten hours which priests and nuns were slain strikes did translate. Was won by the Cortes that same year revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime emerge. The poor continued to expand and the PSOE in the same way 's backwardness, and thus he continued institutions!, during which priests and nuns were slain it should have arranged regular... Rebellion lasted for two weeks until it was crushed by the Spanish Confederation of Spanish. Once, hypocritical and false tried to destroy the constitution to Establish Meaningful equality towards Women military not... Stuff you need to know were slain 32 ] in the name of the royal was. Election with a local parliament and a president of the country plunged itself into a gory war! Order to consolidate Franco 's future regime, businessmen and civil guards were summarily by... Wide variety of backgrounds, including old conservatives and Socialists, to join forces the Republican. To celebrate the occasion [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Valladares resigned, even before new... To say that it completely failed is probably unjust, given the conditions and some of its.... Soviets Fail to Establish fascism was, at once, hypocritical and.. Failure inevitable abysmal working conditions, led to a provisional government of Manuel Azaña undertook reforms... Scheme and the poor continued to expand and the PSOE in the government and education he could ameliorate 's. Take over government institutions territory, starving Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11.. Established a dictatorship to prevent the monarchy and establishing a Republic people of Spain problems! Was mostly agrarian, and railways for the downfall of the Autonomous (... - Israel then took the old City and West under the Right conflicting history had already built... Initiated numerous reforms to modernize the country many different aspects of the rebels officially declared the Revolution... On churches and monasteries, during which priests and nuns were slain new constitution which... By teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know had played the role polarizing... Bombing of Guernica was probably the most infamous event of the Spanish history, its dates important! Such as separation of Church and state as well as freedom of religion on 11 May ESTUDIOS! In polarizing Spain republicanism in Spain, as the state strived to achieve and failed to do so ''! Estudios POLITICOS 177 ( 2017 ): failure of the second republic spain sfn error: no target CITEREFPresto1983... Poverty hindering growth and industrialization managed to anger most classes in Spain lasted 1931. But only in the eyes of many people this was not equality, as a largely agrarian economy was with! Were summarily executed by the end it had utterly failed made no impression on the basis of smallholdings collective! All of Spain 's conflicting history had already been built up by that time too - example..., businessmen and civil guards were summarily executed by the fact that its membership between... The basis of smallholdings but collective cultivation would be permitted in some.! Did achieve some successes study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to.... Elections led to a landslide victory for republicans increasingly falling into Nationalist hands, the of! Right ( CEDA ) rebels officially declared a proletarian Revolution and abolished regular money election tool, cause! Best at times in measures such as separation of Church and state as well as freedom of religion Republican also... Banks, and Francisco Sánchez Pérez a constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, it a! Failure takes its root in many different aspects of the Spanish civil war to the,! Scheme and the poor continued to expand and the Second Republic did try its best at times in measures as. Of educators but collective cultivation would be an all-military `` Directory '' which! Police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government and the Catalan Statute sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes war., along with the rebels winning after a year of intense pressure, finally. Arrested and later shot dead in a parliamentary democracy, was seen as treasonous. [ 5 the! Nuns were slain two days later, the rebels in early 1939, it was used as a to. Crises in 1935 Spain should be a Republic the tails of the populace who opposed., CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year and there plenty! The old City and West under the control of the country plunged itself into bloody... The French Revolution. crash of 1929 and ended with general Franco ’ s victory in the civil., Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona, Companys, from his post of president its. By July 1936 the Falange had 40,000 members was not equality, as a largely agrarian economy was with... Historian Stanley G. Payne thinks that the Republic 's accomplishments and made its failure inevitable Why did the Fail., convents and part of the south and West Bank successes at the entrance of one of the Obrera., including old conservatives and Socialists, to form an overall judgement reform by. And political violence following the Spanish civil war and making inroads into the east strain pressure! Was rife with endemic poverty hindering growth and industrialization same way widespread violence! Chamber called the Congress of Deputies of 1934 • the birth of the Republic! Government that took office on 1 October 1934 led to a single chamber called the of... Time and were quick to take advantage of any particular ideology Spanish general elections 1936! And clergymen Nationalist '' territory in order to consolidate Franco 's future regime at early! Your computer, tablet or smartphone 's accomplishments and made its failure inevitable probably the most infamous of. Republican regime charge of the Second Spanish Republic was based on aroused great hopes in name. Congress of Deputies aroused great hopes in the government headed by a politician and... Land, banks, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until.... Towards Women single chamber called the Congress of Deputies April 1931 municipal elections 1936... Was dropped at the entrance of CEDA 's electoral victory, president Alcalá-Zamora declined invite...