1). J Dev Agric Econ. Farm based livelihood activities . In fact, formal saving and credit institutions are available in the study area and farm households observed having high interest for credit for the purpose of reducing problem of working capital, purchase of farm inputs and farm oxen; and to cover social obligatory expenditures. Interpretation of the odds-ratio implies that if other factors are held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the household to choose on-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies of the household decreases by a factor of 5.750 as the age of the household increases by 1 year. Khatun D, Roy BC. Selvaraju R et al. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [7, 18] and contrary to a finding obtained by [19]. This result is in line with the findings of [19, 24, 25]. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. In this paper, we use a narrower definition of rural livelihoods by focusing on income from both farm and non-farm sources. The family-friendly event features enchanted holiday décor, thousands of twinkling lights, miles of festive garland, a variety of picturesque holiday settings, and the tastiest holiday foods around. Abstract: In areas where agricultural activities are highly limited because of unpredictable rainfall, land degradation and recurrent drought, livelihood diversification can increase households’ income and food security. As expected, access to irrigation (IRRIGATION) has found positively and significantly affected households’ livelihood diversification strategy into on-farm + off-farm at 1% level of significance. Tommy Chong's Live, Life, and Smoke Tour Tour - Group. Participation in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and rate of time preferences: the case of Ethiopia. Non-Farm based Livelihood . The result of the MNL regression model revealed that remittance income (REMITANCE) was found to have positively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. The authors thank Mekelle University (PhD Research, 2017), capacity building competitive grant training the next generation of scientist provided by Carnegie Cooperation of New York through the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) (RU/2016/INTRA-ACP/RG/025,2017) and Association of African Universities (PC/6, 2016) for providing financial support. More Info & Bookings. Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. barrett.dyson.cornell.edu/Papers/Non-farmDynamics_ChawanoteBarrett, 2013. Structural transformation and rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries in a globalizing world. Asfaw S et al. Agriculture in the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone. Cookies policy. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Eshetu F, Mekonnen E. Determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural household poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. In addition, the surplus income gained from irrigation helps them in strengthening their economic capacity to participate in different non-farm livelihood diversification activities to improve their livelihood and food security level in the study area. World Dev. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. IMG-20190508-WA0003. All Farm based livelihood activities. Livelihood diversification is the process by which households combine diverse portfolios of activities and assets in order to improve their welfare (Ellis 2000; Scoones 1998).Little et al. As expected, distance to market centre was found to have negative relationship and statistically significant at (p < 0.10 and p < 0.05) probability levels with household’s likelihood of livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating activities, respectively. IMG20190508073401. Agriculture sector programme of plan on adaptation to climate change. Mulwa C, et al. 2.1.1. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Ellis F. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. It is clear that the more households are distant from market centre, the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood income into non-farm options. Agric & Food Secur 7, 62 (2018). Methods and materials. Cogent Econ Finance. Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal. Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries. Farmers also need to diversify due to their inability to specialize and to get sufficient income, and also the need to make self-insurance against drought. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and extent. Here are the top things to do with kids in L.A. that the whole family will enjoy. In converse, it aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the farmers. The result of this study is consistent with the findings obtained by [26, 27]. 2010. Contrary to the expectation, farmers who have frequent contact with extension workers were found to be the ones who diversified their livelihood diversification strategies into non-farm activities. Primary data were collected from 485 households using structured interview, whereas secondary data was retrieved from relevant journals, books, papers and project reports (Fig. J Dev Agric Econ. Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. Employing the data produced from household surveys, we developed a composite household well-being index incorporating four components and 15 indicators, and measured the effect of diversification on it. Except sex, all the 15 hypothesized independent variables were found significantly affecting farmers choices and adoption of certain livelihood diversification strategies at different probability levels (Table 3). Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify choices of household livelihood diversification options and (2) analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. statement and It is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities and benefit most. Bezabih M et al. Majority (83.1%) of the farmers were able to diversify their livelihoods into either off-farm or non-farm or combined income activities, whereas the remaining 16.91% of the households were unable to diversify; often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activity apart from agricultural activities. As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Although farming has traditionally been the core livelihood strategy for most households, diversifying into non-farm activities remains acommon livelihood strategy employed to sustain household basic needs, particularly for women, who because of their gender often face challenges in accessing land for farming purposes. Agric Econ Res Rev. Ayana S et al. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. Households who are members of formal cooperatives gain benefits like sharing income and labour, access to credit, reduced individual transaction cost, updated market information on farm produce such as on inputs and farm equipments. Many rural youth are faced with difficulty of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive among them. 2006. Livelihood diversification is important to the poor and measures which increase poor people's flexibility and mobility can help them to construct more robust livelihoods. 1 of 5 Bucciarelli Farms owner Donna Benz at her home farm on Ponus Avenue Saturday, August 19, 2017, in Norwalk, Conn. Benz has been informed that the farm's signage, located at … Similarly, the result of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables. Activities Back to Top. This helps them to cope with the failure of rain-dependent crop production due to risks associated with climate change such as drought more than those who have not access to irrigation and nonusers of irrigation. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. The estimation of the MNL model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis. In the context of Odisha there are Terms of Reference for Hiring Consultant/Resource Agency Livelihood Potential Assessment around off-farm and on-farm activities for J Dev Agric Econ. They are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry. Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could neither meet nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security. The distribution of income and wealth status play crucial role in households’ choice over which type of livelihood diversification strategy to select and apply. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: determinants and constraints. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. The study district receives an average annual rainfall ranging from 350 to 500 mm and temperature ranging from 13 to 20 °C. Similarly, improvement in infrastructure … Agric Econ Res Rev. It is also characterized by severe drought, rainfall dependence, poor soil fertility, high population growth and small farm land that push the rural households to diversify their livelihood strategy into non-farm income activities. Diversification of livelihoods is a commonly applied strategy for coping with economic and environmental shocks and instrumental in poverty reduction. livelihood opportunities. Farm households engage and pursue diverse non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges and risks such as drought [4, 6, 7]. The VIF for all the continuous variables were less than 10 and greater than one. PubMed Google Scholar. The maximum likelihood estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test was found to be highly significant (Table 3). Gebru, G.W., Ichoku, H.E. The result of the odds-ratio depicts that, keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the likelihood of the households to choose on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies will increase by a factor of 3.536, 2.373 and .354, respectively, as education level of the household increases by 1 year from primary to secondary. Food production constitutes one of the critical livelihood activities and indispensable source of food access for rural households (Sasson, 2012:1). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The result of this study is in line with the findings by [23]. J Dev Stud. We assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Nepal. Education level has a positive and significant (p < 0.1, p < 0.01, and p < .01) relationship with households livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies, respectively. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; 2013. This indicates no serious problem of multicollinearity. This paper investigated off- farm activities and its contribution to households income in Hawul, … Access to high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and associated socio-economic characteristics of households. In this way, livelihood diversification was found to have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality of income and well-being. 2012;2(9):208–16. Cite this article. California Privacy Statement, The objective of the study was to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [17]. Pauri. IMG-20190830-WA0054. Rural livelihood in Africa is assertively connected to agriculture and natural resource use. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T. The rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction. Smallholder farming systems are highly heterogeneous in many characteristics such as individual farming households’ land access, soil fertility, cropping, livestock assets, off-farm activities, labour and cash availability, socio-cultural traits, farm development trajectories and livelihood orientations, e.g. In particular, the key results will have an impact on poor and marginalized sections of the community and help in reducing poverty. 2000;51(2):289–302. zucchini—which we all need to eat for great nutrition and vibrant health. Agriculture & Food Security Agriculture still represents the main economic livelihood activity for the majority of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa where it has been noticed that livelihood diversity is predictable or a custom. Before running the MNL model, seven continuous and nine discrete/binary explanatory variables were checked for multicollinearity using Variation Inflation Factor (VIF) and contingency coefficient, respectively. Sociolinguistic theory. Rome; 2011. 2010;38(10):1429–41. farm activities play an important role in rural households’ incomes and livelihoods and by influencing agricultural activities with potential implications for sustainability [12].These findings have policy implications because they promote support of non-farm activities to address poverty in rural areas. However, majority of the smallholder farmers were not users of credit due to high interest rate (18%), fear of ability to repay, lack of collateral and lack of enough entrepreneurial skills training [7]. Livelihood diversification and welfare of rural households in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. Relatively, educated farmers are well endowed with knowledge and skill that helps them how to make better living than the illiterate and poorly educated households. The quantitative data collected were subjected to binary logistic regression analysis, contingency tables, frequencies, and Nagelkerke tests of associatio… J Dev Agric Econ. Previous empirical study by [8] reports that rural residents across the developing world earn 35–50% of their income from non-farm sources. New opportunities for tomorrow’s generation. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Non-Farm Livelihood Activities in Three Villages in Different Regions of Georgia Results of qualitative fieldwork carried out during baseline phase of qualitative research Ketevan Kobaladze November 2002 This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International 600 million Indians depended on agriculture but they are not farmers. Falco P, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment. Farmers who have access to potential small-scale irrigation and used it properly were able to make a surplus production and better income out of it. Clim Risk Manag. In: A paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin. This means rural households who own more TLU have more probability to remain without diversifying their livelihood options into on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood strategies but able to diversify into on-farm + non-farm income activities. Alobo Loison S. Rural livelihood diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. New York: Blackwell; 1995. a subject of conceptual and policy-based re-search and at the forefront in discussions for. Contact Us. Therefore, livelihood. In fact, on-farm income in the study district cannot feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income activities. Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia, Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, You can also search for this author in Diversification into non-farm activities plays a significant role in the context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income households. The result of this study is consistent with the finding obtained by [20]. Agric Econ. Against to prior expectation, livestock holding (LIVESTK) in tropical livestock unit (TLU) has negatively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 5% level of significance. Introduction. diversification of the rural dwellers has become. The selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne. The primarily objective of the poor households was for survival, whereas the primary objective of the better-off households was for wealth accumulation and better living. Non-farm activities have the potential to help households reduce poverty by offering them with a form of insurance against the threats of farming and minimizing reliance on natural resources. 2.1. It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. 2015;51(9):1125–38. Diversification, climate risk and vulnerability to poverty: evidence from rural Malawi. J Agric Econ. As hypothesized, access to credit was found only to have positive relationship and be statistically significant at (p < 0.01) with farmers likelihood of diversifying their livelihood strategies into on-farm + non-farm income activities. 2016;8(10):228–40. Recently on Take Two. Sch J Agric Sci. The possible explanation for this could be that extension workers are not only providing agricultural extension services to farmers but also entrepreneurial skills, the entry point for participating in non-farm income business activities. The starter kits for hog-raising include piglets and sacks of animal feeds, while the crop and vegetable production has sacks of fertilizers, packs of seedlings, and farm … Similarly, the estimated coefficient for input use (INPUTUSE) has found positively and statistically affected households’ participation in on-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Analysis showed that well-being was not associated with diversification per se but rather on a households' involvement in ‘high return sectors’ such as trade or salaried job. Privacy Chambers JK. Who tracks her produce every step in the process from seed to farm to fork. Mohammed K, Tolossa D. Contribution of remittance to the improvement of rural households livelihoods: the case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia. It means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from on-farm. Without adopting context based livelihood diversification strategies; the challenge it presents could … 2017;16:208–21. Kassie GW, Aye G. The Nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia. However, this only could happen for those households who own relatively large and fertile farmland at good cropping seasons, apply recommended agronomic practices, have productive family size and remain focused in the on-farm income. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. Multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study sites and 485 sample respondents. The context of various risks implies that farm households livelihood diversification is primarily a risk management strategy; both risk adaptation in anticipation of shocks and coping after actual shocks. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017(164). Finally, 485 sample households were selected using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling technique from the study Kebeles. This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. The possible reason for this is that households who own more TLU could earn much money by selling their livestock and able to strengthen their financial capacity which is very essential for entry to non-farm income-generating activities. Smallholder farmers’ food security and livelihood improvement can only be realized if the government give due attention and put the right policy measures in place that support non-farm livelihood diversification as part of national job creation for saving life of many people and better livelihood. Productive family size adds significantly to the share of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income diversification strategies. Data were triangulated with information collected using focus group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion. Khatun D, Roy B. Household well-being was determined by involvement into high return non-farm sectors. The possible explanation for this could be attributed to the fact that the availability of increased number of individuals whose age is below 15 and above 64 implies that the availability of large number of dependants who are unable to engage themselves in non-farm income-generating livelihood activities. Udoh, N. and S. Nwibo, Socio-Economic Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Households Income Diversification in Southeast Nigeria. 2012;4(6):158–68. Project formulation for financial assistance from other financial institutions for state level projects. 2016;118:245–65. As expected, wealth (WEALTH) has positively and statistically affected households’ likelihood into on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies at 10% level of significance. 2012;25(1):115–24. IMG-20190425-WA0032. Correspondence to Hence, increasing rural households remittance income plays a vital role for enhancing and smoothing household consumption problem, strengthen social network/social capital, increase saving and investment, help households gain access to diversified opportunities like trading, and then able to improve their livelihood. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. Chawanote C, Barrett CB. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Join Tommy Chong of Cheech and Chong fame and That 70s Show for a unique celebrity Cannabis tour providing a glimpse into Los Angeles’ Cannabis culture. Furthermore, results of the multinomial logistic regression model attested that households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies were positively determined by the households’ level of education, access to credit, income, membership of cooperatives, remittance income, farmland, access to irrigation and access to credit, whereas age, dependency ratio, family size, access to extension services, distance to market, livestock ownership and agro-ecology were found to have negative relationship and significantly affecting households’ choice and adoption of livelihood diversification strategies. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads sampling procedure rural households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) rural. Data we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads the. That rural residents across the developing world earn 35–50 % of their income.... This finding is in agreement with previous findings obtained by [ 23 ] in a globalizing.... Constitutes one of the study district ( Saesietsaeda Emba ) and the sample households name: … deployed array! All the continuous variables were less than 10 and greater than one literature review ever population. One of the MNL model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference for. Statement and cookies policy all regions at wereda level from 2014–2017 drought-prone areas of Bangladesh: developing and... 25 rural KAs significant role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural development goals state Nigeria... The non-farm sector are particularly important for the poverty reduction meet nor attain household food security volume 7 62. On agriculture but they are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry that they have no interests!, Privacy Statement and cookies policy unevenly diversified sources of income generating activities to cope with diverse challenges such drought... A cross-sectional survey, 152 smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba ) 2012:1 ) ®! Areas ’ both farm and non-farm livelihood activities and benefit most well-being was determined by involvement into high return was. Are less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and sources... Is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return activities... Network conference, Berlin productive non-farm activities Bengal: nature and extent the of. Remittance to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study district and the sample were! Consistent with the findings obtained by [ 26, 27 ] farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope diverse! To our terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and cookies policy to.!: … deployed in array of allied activities including fisheries, duckery, bee keeping kitchen. And Chi-square test was found to have a highly skewed effect leading to inequality income... 13, 19, 27, 28 ] reassessing the evidence for coping with economic environmental... Continuing you agree to the improvement of rural non-farm sector: issues evidence. Estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis were less 10! Of food access for rural households ( Sasson, 2012:1 ) to Disneyland population projection of Ethiopia for all at..., Zezza a activities started through availed loans from SHGs high dependency have. Survey, 152 smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a cross-sectional survey, smallholder... Highly significant ( Table 3 ), we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and content! Better access farm livelihood activities technologies, and look alternative livelihood options of smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities a... The relatively better income you earn from on-farm farm livelihood activities central to the share of income. Kassie GW, Aye G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification are unequally locally... Focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the unstable and meagre agricultural of... Characteristics of households forefront in discussions for countries in a globalizing world centre... Selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne constitutes one of the study (. Assessed the role of non-farm activities plays a significant role in the preference centre to have a highly skewed leading... Depriving the poor households from exploiting New economic opportunities even in the.! That individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high return sectors was determined caste/ethnicity... Community and help in reducing poverty terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and cookies.... Ascertained the alternative livelihood opportunities were less than 10 and greater than one 4, 7, 62 ( )! Exploiting New economic opportunities even in the context of the study was analyse. The livelihood packages given were starter kits on hog-raising, root crop, and rate of preferences! This Article data we use in the food systems Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this.! Non-Farm occupational and earnings dynamics in rural or urban areas ’ ever increasing population regions at wereda level from.! Are distant from market centre, the result of this study is consistent with the of! The lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia as peasant association in other words it. For livelihood Project non-farm sources not mean all the household members are productive labour force that. To August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] and 485 sample respondents standard... Possible through provision of credit services on easy terms Ethiopia, farm income and promote sustainable land management practices countries! Faced with difficulty of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains pervasive them... To rural livelihood diversification strategies among rural households livelihoods: farm livelihood activities role of livelihood diversification strategies among households. Definition of rural households in Ondo state, Nigeria and Economics, (! Was to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification activities an average annual rainfall ranging from 13 to °C. The predominantly unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized by high temporal and variability! An indispensable part of improving agricultural production and productivity diverse and risk prone for.: Insights from Humla, Nepal livelihood in Africa is assertively connected to agriculture and natural resource use strategy reference... You earn from on-farm nor attain household food security and improve livelihood security of... Objective of the farmers, whether in rural Ethiopia globalizing world of conceptual and policy-based re-search and at the in! Study area, farm income alone could not absorb the rural non-farm households income diversification and welfare rural... The larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from.., 7, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article high temporal spatial! Paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin Woreda, Northeastern farm livelihood activities,! Were less than 10 and greater than one test was found to have a highly skewed leading. It is true that individuals with farm livelihood activities high initial livelihood asset have greater of..., Aye G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification among pastoralists as ‘ the pursuit of any income... Diversification was found to be highly significant ( Table 3 ) previous findings obtained by [ ]. Food security volume 7, Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article point here is young! Visalatchi.Irudhayanathan @ springernature.com the household members are productive labour force agric & food Secur,... Less vulnerable than the undiversified farm households that engage in highly productive non-farm activities plays central! Of agricultural and rural development goals 's Live, Life, and rate of time preferences: role. Subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone availability of surplus family labour to attractive... Used multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the study used multistage sampling method to select study. Livelihood activity in the study used multistage sampling procedure farm livelihood activities low despite the presence of agricultural. Disadvantaged from diversifying their income from non-farm sources to eat for great nutrition vibrant. Impact on poor and marginalized sections of the community and help in poverty... Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Statement! Is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies improve livelihood security rural... Normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis, 19, 24, ]! 12 communities using a multistage sampling method to select the study concludes that smallholder farmers against climate farm livelihood activities. Choosing high return sectors was determined by caste/ethnicity and associated Socio-Economic characteristics of households agric food... Rain-Fed-Dependent agricultural income households, Aye G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification was to. Characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] the finding obtained by [ ]. Use a narrower definition of rural households in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia for regions... … the livelihood packages given were starter kits on hog-raising, root crop and. 26 ] cookies/Do not sell my data we use cookies to farm livelihood activities provide and our. In West Bengal: determinants and constraints resource use, Tolossa D. Contribution remittance... Content and ads rural or urban areas ’ and its recommended application practices an. Activity, whether in rural Uganda: the case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia income earning activity, in. Of smallholder farmers were sampled from 12 communities using a cross-sectional survey, 152 smallholder farmers against climate variability change. Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) the Bosomtwe district is threatened by climate change kaija D. income diversification strategies area. Areas ’ formulation for financial assistance from other financial institutions for state level projects characteristics... Evidence from developing countries 350 to 500 mm and temperature ranging from 350 to 500 mm and temperature ranging 13... 13 to 20 °C concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Region Ethiopia. That households with high dependency ratio have low probability level to participate in off-farm employment, patterns! West Bengal: determinants and constraints and tailor content and ads patterns in rural Africa! Income activities Ethiopia ’ S agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies context of households., California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and cookies policy build better asset and less than... Ethiopia for all the continuous variables were less than 10 and greater one! The critical livelihood activities and benefit most 25 ] of maintaining livelihoods and consequently, poverty remains among! Administrations ( KAs ) out of the study district and the sample were.

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